Journal of Hydraulic Engineering
American Society of Civil Engineers
Energy losses occurring in pipe junctions have been studied for many years. Head loss coefficients (KK) are commonly used to characterize losses across elbows, tees, crosses, valves, and other pipe fittings. When accurate values of KK are used, the flow rate and corresponding total head at any location in a pipe network can be calculated. While KK is well defined for most pipe junctions and fittings, the literature has limited documentations of KK for crosses. This study was commissioned to determine KK for a wide range of flow combinations in a pipe cross with equal diameter pipes and varied flow combinations. This study provides and innovatively presents over 1,000 experimental values of KK for designing and analyzing equal diameter pipe crosses.
Sharp, Z.B., Johnson, M.C., Barfuss, S.L., and Rahmeyer W.J. 2009. Energy Losses in Cross Junctions. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 136, No. 1, January 2010.