Improving Concrete Containment Structures Associated with Fixed Cone Valves
Fixed-Cone valves are often used to dissipate energy and regulate flow at the low level outlet works of dams. Fixed-Cone valves, also known as Howell-Bunger valves, create an expanding conical jet allowing the energy of the water to dissipate over a large area. However, in many applications constructing the large stilling basin necessary for these valves is either not possible or not feasible. In order to reduce the relative size of the stilling basin, hoods or concrete containment structures have been used in conjunction with Fixed-Cone valves. This paper discusses the use of baffles in concrete containment structures in order to dissipate energy in a considerably confined space. It was determined that using baffles, in place of a deflector ring and end sill (Used in traditional containment structures), significantly improves the function of containment structures by reducing downstream flow velocities and improving flow patterns and stability. This information will be useful to engineers allowing them to minimize scour and erosion associated with concrete containment structures.