Document Type


Journal/Book Title/Conference

Water Resources Research






American Geophysical Union

Publication Date



A regional hydroeconomic model is developed to include demand shifts from nonprice water conservation programs as input parameters and decision variables. Stochastic nonlinear programming then jointly identifies the benefit-maximizing portfolio of conservation and leak reduction programs, infrastructure expansions, and operational allocations under variable water availability. We present a detailed application for 12 governorates in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. It considers targeted installations of water-efficient appliances, leak reduction in the distribution system, surface and groundwater development, seawater desalination, conveyance, and wastewater treatment projects. Results show that (1) water conservation by urban users generates substantial regional benefits and can delay infrastructure expansions; (2) some rationing and conjunctive use operations smooth operations during droughts; (3) a broad mix of source developments, conveyance expansions, and leak reduction programs can forestall the need for desalination; (4) the Disi carrier to Amman should include a large branch to Karak; and (5) increasing conveyance from Ma'an, Irbid, and Mafraq can avert impending crises in the neighboring districts of Tafelah, Ajloun, and Zarqa.


Originally published by the American Geophysical Union. Publisher's PDF and HTML fulltext can be accessed through Water Resources Research.