The Effects of Upstream Piping on Check Valves
Journal -- American Water Works Association
The relationship of upstream flow variables to the flow characteristics of non return valves is examined. The phenomena of cavitation, vibration and noise, minimum flow required to open the valve fully, internal motion, and wear of the components are discussed. These effects should be considered in the design, application, and use of non return valves. (A)
The Effects of Upstream Piping on Check Valves, Journal of the American Water Works Association, November 1983, (Rahmeyer)
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