IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
This article reviews the human-machine interaction (HMI) technologies used for telemanipulation by small unmanned systems (SUS) with remote manipulators. SUS, including land, air, and sea vehicles, can perform a wide range of reconnaissance and manipulation tasks with varying levels of autonomy. SUS operations involving physical interactions with the environment require some level of operator involvement, ranging from direct control to goal-oriented supervision. Telemanipulation remains a challenging task for all levels of human interaction because the operator and the vehicle are not colocated, and operators require HMI technologies that facilitate manipulation from a remote location. This article surveys the human operator interfacing for over 70 teleoperated systems, summarizes the effects of physical and visual interface factors on user performance, and discusses these findings in the context of telemanipulating SUS. This article is of importance to SUS researchers and practitioners who will directly benefit from HMI implementations that improve telemanipulation performance.
S. Youngand J. Peschel, “Review of human–machine interfaces for small unmanned systems with robotic manipulators,”IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 131–143, 2020.doi:10.1109/THMS.2020.2969380.