Document Type


Journal/Book Title/Conference

Water Resources Research





Publication Date


First Page


Last Page



A simulation/optimization (S/0) model to aid managing multiobjective wastewater loading to streams while maintaining adequate downstream water quality is presented. The conflicting objectives are to maximize the human and dairy cattle populations from which treated wastewater can be discharged to the river system. Nonindustrial municipal (domestic) wastewater undergoes primary and secondary treatment by a sewage treatment plant (STP) before entering as a steady point source. Dairy wastewater is treated by overland flow (OLF) land treatment before entering the stream as a controlled steady diffuse source. Maximum dual-source loading strategies which do not degrade downstream water quality beyond specified limits are developed. For each computed loading strategy, an optimal OLF system design is also determined. The E constraint method is used to obtain sets of noninferior solutions. Sets of noninferior solutions are represented graphically to show the trade-off between human and bovine populations that can be maintained. Each set is computed for a different upstream flow rate to illustrate sensitivity to nondeterministic upstream flow rates. The nonlinear constraints utilized restrict downstream concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen (organic, ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate), organic and dissolved phosphorus, and chlorophyll a. Concentrations are described via regression equations. The new regression expressions, surrogates for the complex advective-dispersive equation, permit rapid and feasible solutions by this unique S/0 model.