Mechanistic Study of Protein Phosphatase-1 (PP1), A Catalytically PromiscuousEnzyme

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Journal of the American Chemical Society

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The reaction catalyzed by the protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) has been examined by linear free energy relationships and kinetic isotope effects. With the substrate 4-nitrophenyl phosphate (4NPP), the reaction exhibits a bell-shaped pH-rate profile for kcat/KM indicative of catalysis by both acidic and basic residues, with kinetic pKa values of 6.0 and 7.2. The enzymatic hydrolysis of a series of aryl monoester substrates yields a Brønsted βlg of −0.32, considerably less negative than that of the uncatalyzed hydrolysis of monoester dianions (−1.23). Kinetic isotope effects in the leaving group with the substrate 4NPP are 18(V/K)bridge = 1.0170 and 15(V/K) = 1.0010, which, compared against other enzymatic KIEs with and without general acid catalysis, are consistent with a loose transition state with partial neutralization of the leaving group. PP1 also efficiently catalyzes the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl methylphosphonate (4NPMP). The enzymatic hydrolysis of a series of aryl methylphosphonate substrates yields a Brønsted βlg of −0.30, smaller than the alkaline hydrolysis (−0.69) and similar to the βlg measured for monoester substrates, indicative of similar transition states. The KIEs and the βlg data point to a transition state for the alkaline hydrolysis of 4NPMP that is similar to that of diesters with the same leaving group. For the enzymatic reaction of 4NPMP, the KIEs are indicative of a transition state that is somewhat looser than the alkaline hydrolysis reaction and similar to the PP1-catalyzed monoester reaction. The data cumulatively point to enzymatic transition states for aryl phosphate monoester and aryl methylphosphonate hydrolysis reactions that are much more similar to one another than the nonenzymatic hydrolysis reactions of the two substrates.

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