Int. J. Quantum Chem.
The characteristics of the pnicogen bond are explored using a variety of quantum chemical techniques. In particular, this interaction is compared with its halogen and chalcogen bond cousins, as well as with the more common H-bond. In general, these bonds are all of comparable strength. More specifically, they are strengthened by the presence of an electronegative substituent on the electron-acceptor atom, and each gains strength as one moves down the appropriate column of the periodic table, for example, from N to P to As. These noncovalent bonds owe their stability to a mixture in nearly equal parts of electrostatic attraction and charge transfer, along with a smaller dispersion component. The charge transfer arises from the overlap between the lone pair of the electron donor and a σ* antibond of the acceptor. The angular characteristics of the equilibrium geometry result primarily from a compromise between electrostatic and induction forces. Angular distortions of the H-bond are typically less energetically demanding than comparable bends of the other noncovalent bonds.
Detailed Comparison of the Pnicogen Bond with Chalcogen, Halogen and Hydrogen Bonds S. Scheiner Int. J. Quantum Chem. 2013 113 1609-1620