Synthesis and anticancer structure activity relationship investigation of cationic anthraquinone analogs
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
We have synthesized a series of novel 4,9-dioxo-4,9-dihydro-1H-naphtho[2,3-d][1,2,3]triazol-3-ium salts, which can be viewed as analogs of cationic anthraquinones. Unlike the similar analogs that we have reported previously, these compounds show relatively weak antibacterial activities but exert strong anticancer activities (low μM to nM GI50), in particular, against melanoma, colon cancer, non-small cell lung cancer and central nervous system (CNS) cancer. These compounds are structurally different from their predecessors by having the aromatic group, instead of alkyl chains, directly attached to the cationic anthraquinone scaffold. Further investigation in the structure–activity relationship (SAR) reveals the significant role of electron donating substituents on the aromatic ring in enhancing the anticancer activities via resonance effect. Steric hindrance of these groups is disadvantageous but is less influential than the resonance effect. The difference in the attached groups at N-1 position of the cationic anthraquinone analog is the main structural factor for the switching of biological activity from antibacterial to anticancer. The discovery of these compounds may lead to the development of novel cancer chemotherapeutics.
Shrestha, J. P.; Fosso, M. Y.; Bearss, J.; Chang, C.-W. T. "Synthesis and anticancer structure activity relationship investigation of cationic anthraquinone analogs." Eur. J. Med. Chem. 2014, 77, 96-102. PubMed PMID: 24631728.
PubMed PMID: 24631728