Selective Pressurized Liquid Extraction of Halogenated Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls Form Pine Needles.

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Journal of Chromatography A

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Pine needles are an ideal matrix for the long-term monitoring of semi-volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere because they are naturally occurring and distributed worldwide. However, typical extraction methods result in the co-elution of matrix-interfering compounds and thus require time-consuming clean-up steps. A selective pressurised liquid extraction method (S-PLE) for extracting current-use pesticides, historic-use pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from pine needles that does not require additional clean-up steps was developed and validated. The selective extraction was achieved by packing the extraction vessel with a fat retainer, Florisil, down-stream of the pine needle matrix. A fat to fat-retainer ratio of 0.0057 (corresponding to 35 g of Florisil per 10 g of pine needle sample) was selected to minimise the co-elution of matrix-interfering compounds. Three 5-min extractions were performed using 25:75 (v/v) dichloromethane:n-hexane and a solvent flush of 150%. The mean recovery of spiked current-use pesticides, historic-use pesticides and PCBs using this method was 71%, 72%, and 84%, respectively. The method was validated by comparing target analyte concentrations measured in a pine needle sample using the optimised S-PLE method to those obtained using a conventional PLE method with external clean-up. The method detection limits and reproducibility were similar for the two methods; however, sample preparation time was 67% shorter when using the S-PLE method.

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