Batteries & Supercaps
Wiley - VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA
DFT calculations were conducted to provide insightful and unprecedented thermodynamic insights on tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvation, isomerization, chlorination, and complexation of possible Mg-Cl coordination species for the popular Mg-Cl electrolytes. Computational results using the M06-2x functional with the 6-31+G(d) basis set indicate trigonal bipyramidal e, e-cis-tbp-MgCl2(THF)3 dichloride species and octahedral [MgCl(THF)5]+ monochloride species are the dominant mononuclear species. These two can combine to form the active dinuclear species, [(μ-Cl)3Mg2(THF)6]+ with a free energy -6.30 kcal/mol, which is calculated to be the dominant Mg-Cl species in solution. Two mono-cation species, [(μ-Cl)3Mg2(THF)6]+ and [MgCl(THF)5]+ have comparable LUMO energies, thus both of them can act as active species for Mg deposition. However, the significant dominance of the dinuclear species in the electrolyte indicates that it is the primary species involved in reversible Mg deposition.
Moss, J. B., Zhang, L., Nielson, K. V., Bi, Y., Wu, C., Scheiner, S. I., Liu, T. L. (2019). Computational Insights into Mg-Cl Complex Electrolytes for Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries. Batteries \& Supercaps, 2(9), 792-800. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/batt.201900029