Document Type


Journal/Book Title

Journal of Chromatography A

Publication Date



Elsevier BV



First Page


Last Page



Various techniques have been evaluated for the extraction and cleanup of pesticides from environmental samples. In this work, a Selective Pressurized Liquid Extraction (SPLE) method for pesticides was developed using a Thermo Fisher Scientific Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) system. This instrument was compared to the newly introduced (2017) extraction instrument, the Energized Dispersive Guided Extraction (EDGE) system, which combines Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) and dispersive Solid Phase Extraction (dSPE). We first optimized the SPLE method using the ASE instrument for pesticide extraction from alfalfa leaves using layers of Florisil and graphitized carbon black (GCB) downstream of the leaf homogenate in the extraction cell (Layered ASE method). We then compared results obtained for alfalfa and citrus leaves with the Layered ASE method to those from a method in which the leaf homogenate and sorbents were mixed (Mixed ASE method) and to similar methods modified for use with EDGE (Layered EDGE and Mixed EDGE methods). The ASE and EDGE methods led to clear, colorless extracts with low residual lipid weight. No significant differences in residual lipid masses were observed between the methods. The UV-Vis spectra showed that Florisil removed a significant quantity of the light-absorbing chemicals, but that GCB was required to produce colorless extracts. Recoveries of spiked analytes into leaf homogenates were generally similar among methods, but in several cases, significantly higher recoveries were observed in ASE extracts. Nonetheless, no significant differences were observed among pesticide concentrations in field samples when calculated with the isotope dilution method in which labelled surrogates were added to samples before extraction. The extraction time with the ASE methods was ~45 minutes, which was ~4.5 times longer than with the EDGE methods. The EDGE methods used ~10 mL more solvent than the ASE methods. Based on these results, the EDGE is an acceptable extraction instrument and, for most compounds, the EDGE had a similar extraction efficiency to the ASE methods.



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