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Omnidirectional bee traffic is the number of bees moving in arbitrary directions in close proximity to the landing pad of a given hive over a given period of time. Video bee traffic analysis has the potential to automate the assessment of omnidirectional bee traffic levels, which, in turn, may lead to a complete or partial automation of honeybee colony health assessment. In this investigation, we proposed, implemented, and partially evaluated a two-tier method for counting bee motions to estimate levels of omnidirectional bee traffic in bee traffic videos. Our method couples motion detection with image classification so that motion detection acts as a class-agnostic object location method that generates a set of regions with possible objects and each such region is classified by a class-specific classifier such as a convolutional neural network or a support vector machine or an ensemble of classifiers such as a random forest. The method has been, and is being iteratively field tested in BeePi monitors, multi-sensor electronic beehive monitoring systems, installed on live Langstroth beehives in real apiaries. Deployment of a BeePi monitor on top of a beehive does not require any structural modification of the beehive’s woodenware, and is not disruptive to natural beehive cycles. To ensure the replicability of the reported findings and to provide a performance benchmark for interested research communities and citizen scientists, we have made public our curated and labeled image datasets of 167,261 honeybee images and our omnidirectional bee traffic videos used in this investigation.
Kulyukin, V.; Mukherjee, S. On Video Analysis of Omnidirectional Bee Traffic: Counting Bee Motions with Motion Detection and Image Classification. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 3743.