An Organism-Centered Approach to Some Community and Ecosystem Concepts
Journal of Theoretical Biology
We present a discussion of the ecological concept of the niche based on the perspective of the individual organism, rather than that of a population or species. This discussion is then expanded to include other related ecological concepts such as guild, environment, habitat and functional group. Using the individual as the focus permits the development of a system of concepts which, we believe, approximate the way that ecological interactions occur in nature.
MacMahon, J. A., D. J. Schimpf, D. C. Andersen, K. G. Smith, and R. L. Bayn, Jr. (1981). An organism-centered approach to some community and ecosystem concepts. J. Theor. Biol. 88(2):287- 307.