IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS), a widely adopted technique to ensure safe thermal characteristics while delivering superior energy efficiency, is rapidly becoming inefficient with technology scaling due to two critical factors: 1) inability to scale the supply voltage due to reliability concerns and 2) dynamic adaptations through DVFS cannot alter underlying power hungry circuit characteristics, designed for the nominal frequency. In this paper, we show that DVFS scaled circuits substantially lag in energy efficiency, by 22%-86%, compared to ground up designs for target frequency levels. We propose architecturally homogeneous power-performance heterogeneous multicore systems, a fundamentally alternate means to design energy efficient multicore systems. Using a system level computer-aided design (CAD) approach, we seamlessly integrate architecturally identical cores, designed for different voltage-frequency domains. We use a combination of standard cell library based CAD flow and full system architectural simulation to demonstrate 11%-22% improvement in energy efficiency using our design paradigm. © 1993-2012 IEEE.
Koushik Chakraborty and Sanghamitra Roy, Architecturally Homogeneous Power-Performance Heterogeneous Multicore Systems, IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems (TVLSI), pp. 670-679, Vol. 2, Issue 4, April 2013.