Affirmative Action and Unemployment
European Journal of Political Economy
Since at least the end of World War II, unemployment rates among the black and other racial minorities have consistently exceeded those of whites by about a factor of two. These unemployment rate differentials, which are even larger for teenagers and other subgroups of the minority population, have been attributed to a variety of causes, including discriminatory hiring practices, fewer educational and on-the-job training opportunities for minorities, and higher job turnover rates among these labor force participants (Barrett and Morgenstern 1974, Bermann 1980). As a result, a large number of social programs have been put in place that are designed either to reduce minority unemployment or to raise the incomes of those so disadvantaged, or both. For example, public policy in this area now includes such measures as direct income transfers, guaranteed minimum wages, and comprehensive employment and training assistance, to name a few.
Affirmative Action and Unemployment” (with Mwangi S. Kimenyi and Robert D. Tollison), European Journal of Political Economy 4 (1988), pp. 479–490.