Scanning Electron Microscopy


Based on the fundamental potential function of the power and exponential forms, a diffusion model of electron beams penetrating in a target has been proposed to take place throughout a hemisphere with a centre located at the most probable energy dissipation depth, related to the diffusion depth and the maximum energy dissipation depth, which is found to agree well with the empirical data of back-scattering coefficient as a function of the incident energy.

Based on the energy retardation power formula concerning the penetration and the energy loss of an electron probe into solid targets, the secondary electron emission yield has been derived as functions of three parameters such as atomic number, first ionization (or plasmon loss for an insulator) and back-scattering coefficient.

Accordingly, the energy-and angular-dependence of secondary electron emissions and the subsequent temperature-rise of the specimens are quantitatively discussed for various target materials in SEM.

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