Scanning Electron Microscopy


Gaussian models for the depth distribution of excitation in a solid bombarded by an electron beam have been successfully applied to the interpretation of data obtained in electron probe x-ray microanalysis (spatial resolution and absorption effects) and to the study of voltage dependence of cathodoluminescence and the voltage dependence of electron beam induced currents at Schottky barriers. In these applications, it was assumed that the distribution of excitation with depth can be scaled in depth according to the range-energy equation: R = CEno. The physical basis for this range-energy equation is the Bethe equation for electron energy loss, which yields the Bethe range when integrated over the electron's path in the target. The "Bethe" range was previously shown by Hoff and Everhart to be of the form R = CEno over the range of energies useful in most experiments with electron beam excitation.

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