After a brief review of the present state of the theory of cryofixation, methods and instruments as well as criteria for the application of cryofixation and cryosubstitution in daily routine work in cell biology and medicine are described. Good results are obtainable using liquid nitrogen for impact freezing on highly polished copper surfaces or by plunging into liquefied propane. Based on these results a versatile and safe system for routine plunging and impact freezing for the majority of biomedical objects has been developed. In order to enable ultramicrotomy at ambient temperature a cryosubstitution system according to the Edelmann principle has been de signed and applied.
Sitte, H.; Neumann, K.; and Edelmann, L.
"Cryofixation and Cryosubstitution for Routine Work in Transmission Electron Microscopy,"
Scanning Electron Microscopy: Vol. 4
, Article 11.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/electron/vol4/iss1/11