Date of Award:

2012

Document Type:

Dissertation

Degree Name:

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Department:

Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Sciences

Advisor/Chair:

Dr. Jong-Su Eun

Abstract

Overall hypothesis in a series of lactation studies reported in this dissertation was that supplementing different rumen modifiers would have consistent responses on ruminal fermentation and lactational performance under optimal ruminal fermentative conditions. First experiment investigated the influence magnesium exchanged zeolite on ruminal fermentation and lactational performance. Intake of dry matter (DM), milk yield, milk fat concentration, and feed efficiency were not affected. Milk protein concentration tended (P = 0.15) to be higher for the zeolite total mixed ration (TMR). Ruminal pH tended to increase (P = 0.11) by feeding the sodium bicarbonate or the zeolite. A second lactation experiment determined the influence of quebracho condensed tannin extract (CTE) on ruminal fermentation and lactational performance. Supplementing CTE decreased intakes of DM and nutrients regardless of forage level thereby increasing feed efficiency. Milk yield and components were not affected. Milk urea N (MUN) and total VFA concentration decreased by supplementing CTE. Cows fed CTE had decreased ruminal ammonia-N and MUN concentrations, indicating that less ruminal N was lost as ammonia. A third lactation trial assessed whole safflower seeds (SS) on ruminal fermentation, lactational performance, and milk fatty acids. Feeding the Nutrasaff SS TMR (NSST) decreased intake of neutral detergent fiber. Digestibilities of nutrients, milk yield and components, ruminal pH, ruminal VFA, and ammonia-N were similar. Ruminal C16:0 fatty acid (FA) concentration increased with the cottonseed TMR (CST), while C18:1 cis-9 and C18:2 n-6 tended (P = 0.10 and P = 0.09, respectively) to increase with SS supplementation. Supplementing SS decreased milk C16:0 concentration, whereas it increased C18:1 cis-9 and C18:1 trans-9. Milk C18:1 trans-11 FA and cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid increased and tended (P = 0.07) to increase with feeding the NSST. Feeding zeolite would cost-effectively replace sodium bicarbonate as a ruminal buffer, whereas CTE may change the route of N excretion, having less excretion into urine, but more into feces. Whole SS can be an effective fat supplement to lactating dairy cows without negative impacts on lactational performance and milk FA. These studies demonstrate that the three rumen modifiers can positively manipulate ruminal fermentation.

Comments

This work made publicly available electronically on May 11, 2012.

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