Date of Award:
Master of Science (MS)
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Slow rate sand filtration (SSF) amended with a 20 cm surface layer of clinoptilolite, a natural zeolite, was compared to SSF with no amendment in a field scale SSF facility treating 85 m3/d of water. Parameters examined included turbidity, coliforms, and ammonium removal. The control filter with sand and the experimental filter amended with the zeolite were also compared with respect to duration of filter cycle, cold weather operation, and economics.
Amended and unamended filters were approximately equivalent with respect to ammonium and coliform removal at 10° C. The zeolite amended cell was superior to the unamended cell with respect to coliform and turbidity removal at 3° C. The zeolite amended cell had filter cycle durations four times longer and operation and maintenance costs 25% lower than the unamended cell.
Laboratory column studies were also conducted to compare a control column of construction sand to a homogeneous sand-zeolite mixture. and to SSF amended with zeolite or coarse sand. Construction sand and clinoptilolite were very similar in metal removal efficiency. Head loss developed most rapidly in the SSF column with construction sand only. Head loss developed more slowly resulting in longer filter cycles when the SSF was amended with a zeolite or coarse sand surface layer. A homogeneous sand-clinoptilolite mixture had filter cycles longer than construction sand, but shorter than SSF amended with a coarse surface medium.
Batch reactor tests were utilized to compare adsorption of reovirus to sand and clinoptilolite. Reovirus adsorption was approximately equivalent for the two media.
Foreman, Gordon P., "Slow Rate Sand Filtration With and Without Clinoptilolite: A Comparison of Water Quality and Filtration Economics" (1985). All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Spring 1920 to Summer 2023. 2896.
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