Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Doctor of Education (EdD)



Department name when degree awarded

Educational Psychology

Committee Chair(s)

John R. Cragun


John R. Cragun


E. Wayne Wright


Arden N. Frandsen


David R. Stone


Glendon Casto


Helmit Hofmann


The study attempted to determine the current expenditures for secondary school guidance programs in Utah. In addition, the study attempted to evaluate the adequacy of selected guidance programs and to determine if a relationship existed between guidance expenditures and adequacy of guidance programs.

Fiscal data were collected, tabulated, and analyzed using financial reports from the Utah Office of Education. Further, response forms were administered to students, school administrators, counselors, and teachers in an attempt to elicit responses from these persons relative to their perceptions of guidance program adequacy in their respective schools.

Results indicated that Utah districts, as a group, spend 1.6 percent of their instructional budgets for guidance purposes. This figure is considerably below the three percent usually recommended in the current literature as being necessary for a "minimum" guidance program. Significant differences were observed in the per pupil expenditures between National Defense Education Act, Title V participants and non-participants with the participants allocating the greater amount. Metropolitan districts were observed to be making significantly greater per pupil expenditures than districts with smaller populations. No significant differences were found in the number of "yes," or positive responses, of students or teachers from "minimum" and "maximum" spending effort schools.

A general conclusion was reached that Utah districts do not presently allocate percentages of instructional budgets that will allow them to develop or maintain sound guidance programs. Either larger budgetary consideration should be provided or else it should be clearly recognized by educators and the lay public that guidance programs that appear to be inadequate may be the result, in part, of unrealistic financing.

A general recommendation that encompasses several others presented in the study is that a total re-evaluation of fiscal policies, practices, allocation procedures, and record keeping for guidance programs is in order. Improvement of budgetary practices and guidance programs are such that changes cannot be expected without increased awareness and commitment by counselor educators, administrators, parents, State Office of Education officials, and counselors. Without such an awareness and commitment, we cannot expect to observe a change from undesirable budgetary practices and relatively unsound guidance programs now found in Utah.



Included in

Education Commons