Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Sociology and Anthropology

Department name when degree awarded


Committee Chair(s)

Therel Black


Therel Black


Wade Andrews


Gary Madsen


Bart Sensening


This study was concerned with the investigation of both the leisure orientation and the outdoor recreation participation of two samples of Utah residents. One sample consisted in part of Professional, Manager and Laborer nonfarm respondents. The other sample consisted of farm respondents, who were both full and part-time farmers. The part-time farmers also held other full-time Professional, Manager and Laborer occupations. The author had three major objectives in this study: (1) to examine the leisure orientation of the respondents from an occupational perspective; (2) to examine the participation in outdoor recreation activities from an occupational perspective; and (3) to examine the enjoyment level of the outdoor recreation activity also from an occupational perspective.

Four hypotheses were formed. These were: (1) nonfarm respondents will be more leisure oriented than farm respondents; (2) nonfarm Professionals will have high participation rates in outdoor recreation activities; (3) nonfarm Managers will have high participation rates in outdoor recreation activities; and (4) nonfarm Laborers will have low participation rates in outdoor recreation activities.

Leisure orientation was measured by a modified Burdge leisure orientation scale. The citations for validity and reliability of the scale are indicated in the study. The measures of outdoor recreation participation in various activities and the level of enjoyment of the activity are defined operationally.

Two of the four hypotheses were supported by the data. The first hypothesis was supported that nonfarm respondents will be more leisure oriented than farm respondents. A mean score of 20.6 was found for the nonfarm respondents and a mean score of 18.6 was found for the farm respondents.

The second and third hypotheses were not supported by the data. That is, the nonfarm Professional and Manager were not found to have "high" participation rates in outdoor recreation activities as defined operationally.

The fourth hypothesis was found to be supported, with the nonfarm Laborers having "low" outdoor recreation participation rates as defined operationally.



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