Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Instructional Technology and Learning Sciences

Committee Chair(s)

Mimi Recker


Mimi Recker


Steven Camicia


Anne Diekema


Ronald B. Gillam


Andrew Walker


Using a sequential mixed-method methodology, this dissertation study set out to understand the emic and etic perspectives of the knowledge encompassed in the technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) framework and to develop fixed answer questions based on that knowledge. While there have been many studies examining ways to measure TPACK in in-service and pre-service teachers, very few have addressed measuring TPACK using fixed-answer questions. Through the use of the mixed-methods, a snapshot of the emic (inside) and etic (outside) perspectives on the TPACK framework was obtained. This study used a focus group with in-service teachers (emic perspective) and interviews with teacher educators (etic perspective) to understand the kind of knowledge attributed to the TPACK framework. Six themes were derived from the focus group and interviews, from which fixed-answer questions were developed. Those six themes included such issues as access to technology, the use of technology for solid teaching and learning purposes, and passive versus active learning when using technology. Following best practices, the eleven questions included a scenario that gave context to the questions asked and the answers provided. In-service teachers reviewed the items to assure that the language and context were appropriate to classroom practice. Four experts on the TPACK framework reviewed the items for face validity. Across the experts six of the eleven items were rated as valid. Although only the experts saw a small number of items as valid, this study indicates that this kind of measurement for the TPACK framework may be possible.