Utah High School Sophomore Attitudes Toward Women's Roles and Non-Traditional Vocational Career Choices
Role behaviors for men and women in our society are undergoing change. Research data to reveal student attitudes toward these role behaviors and choices were needed for the -development of strategies to eliminate sex bias and sex stereotyping in our educational programs and ultimately in the socialization process.
The purpose of the study was to collect research data to determine Utah high school student attitudes toward women's roles and non-traditional vocational career choices. The survey instrument used to collect the data was constructed, pilot tested, factor analyzed, and revised prior to its administration to the sample. The revised instrument contained 60 attitudinal statements regarding women 's roles and non-traditional vocational career choices and demographic data requests.
Instrument reliability was determined on each of the factors using the Guttman Split-half. The Factor I coefficient of reliability was .gl. The reliability coefficient on Factor II was .82 , while the Factor III reliability coefficient was .81.
A total of 23 Utah public high schools and 1,454 sophomore students participated in the study. The data were analyzed using Five-way Analysis of Variance and Chi Square programs (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). The Total Attitudinal Score, based on Women's Roles and Non-Traditional Vocational Career Choices, and three factor scores were the dependent variables analyzed. The factor scores included: Factor I, Women's Place--Women's Roles; Factor II, Sex Role Equity--Equal Treatment; and Factor III, leadership Roles . Comparisons were made on total score and three factor scores based on the five independent variables: Sex (male/female), Religious Commitment (high/low), location of Family Residence (rural/metro), Mother's Employment Status (employed/not employed), and Social Class (middle/working).
A significant difference was found between male and female student attitudes for each factor and the total score. On each comparison of the Sex variable, female attitudes toward women's roles and choices were more non-traditional than male attitudes.
For comparisons on the Religious Commitment variable, a significant difference was found in attitudes between students of high and low religious commitment on total score and each of the factor scores. Students of low religious commitment held more non-traditional attitudes toward women's roles and choices than students of high religious commitment.
A significant difference was found on the location of Family Residence variable for Total Attitudinal Score . Students from metropolitan locations responded more non-traditionally toward women's roles and non-traditional vocational career choices than students from rural locations. Differences in rural and metropolitan student attitudes were not found to be significant for Factor I, Factor II, and Factor III scores.
Significant differences in student attitudes were found on the Mother's Employment Status variable on total score and each of the factor scores. Students whose mothers were employed outside the home held more non-traditional attitudes toward women's roles and related career choices than students with homemaker mothers.
Findings on the Social Class variable were found to be significant for the Total Attitudinal Score and Factor scores II and III. A significant difference was found in attitudes between students from middle class families and students from working class families. Students from middle class families held more non-traditional attitudes toward roles and related career choices for women than students from working class families. No significant difference was found on the Social Class variable for Factor I.