Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Wildland Resources

Department name when degree awarded

Fisheries and Wildlife

Committee Chair(s)

Joseph A. Chapman


Joseph A. Chapman


David Balph


John Bissonette


Philip Urness


Richard Schreyer


A study of grey goral (Nemorhaedus goral) in the Margalla Hills National Park, Pakistan, was conducted to develop a management plan for this animal. Goral are listed as endangered in Pakistan and elsewhere. They are confined to the steep slopes and difficult terrain that cover 28 percent of the total park area. Another 21 percent of the park area has similar habitat, but currently no goral occur there. Forty to 60 animals are estimated to be living in the park. Groups of two to three animals are common. During observation, goral spent most of their time in feeding, moving, and surveillance . Juveniles spent less time in surveillance and more in resting and ruminating than the adults. Group size was inversely correlated with the time

spent in surveillance. Goral foraged early in the morning and late in the evening and were rarely seen during the day. They changed their foraging activities from browsing during the winter to almost entirely grazing during the summer. The rutting period extended from October to December and the lambing period from March to May. Goral populations in the park were estimated to be increasing at a rate of 7 percent annually . They always escaped to a nearby ridge when danger was perceived. Adults and juveniles had dominant and subordinate interactions.

In goral habitat, about 60 percent of the vegetation consists of plant species commonly eaten by the animals. These species include Themeda anathera, Chrysopogon aucheri, Carissa opaca, Acacia modesta, Mimosa rubicaulis, and Ipomoea hispida. Human and livestock populations differ significantly inside and outside goral habitat in the park. Lack of suitable habitat, predation, poaching, and human and livestock pressures affect the goral population and its range in the park.

Reintroduction plans for blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) and cheer pheasant (Catreus vallichii) were analyzed to determine the commonalities: source of animals, poaching, predation, and insufficient staff and funds. A goral management plan based on my field studies and the analysis of the other reintroduction plans are discussed. A general wildlife management strategy for Pakistan is discussed. The government should have a well-defined policy about wildlife and park management. Habitat remains the critical factor. Strong legislation, well-educated and well-equipped staff, and proper funding are required for this purpose. In addition, education and economic development of the public, especially those living in and around parks, are essential.



Included in

Life Sciences Commons