Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Sciences

Committee Chair(s)

George E. Stoddard


George E. Stoddard


This book was assembled using the latest information for compiling the nutrient requirements of sheep, goats, cattle and water buffalo. Because of the complexity of the interactions between an animal, its diet, its physiological state, and the environment; the values depicting the nutrient requirements are estimates and not absolutes. These values, however, are considered to be adequate to meet the minimum requirements of healthy animals maintained in a thermoneutral environment.

The mean energy and protein values used in the nutrient tables were arrived at from combining values found in the literature and those provided in personal communication with animal nutritionists in many developing countries. In some cases, only two or three observations were found for estimating the values used. Future research in ruminant nutrition should be designed to provide information needed to confirm or modify the values presented here.

Feed composition tables representing feeds commonly found in Latin America, Africa, Asia and the Middle East have been included for an easy reference when formulating diets. Units of expression of data in the tables of feed composition and animal nutrient requirements are presented using three systems: Metabolizable energy (ME), net energy (NE); total digestible nutrients (TDN) and Scandinavian feed units (FU). conversion factors from SE to ME, TDN, etc., are presented in Section 1 for those who need this information. Also a list of abbreviations used appear in Appendix 5.

A brief discussion showing three methods of calculating rations by hand are presented. Each of these methods permits some consideration for calculating a "least-cost" ration. It is important, however, that the person formulating a diet has a knowledge of the animal's nutrient requirements, an understanding of the digestibility and utilization of feeds and the various combinations required to formulate a diet adequate to supply all the needs of animals. Examples of hand calculated rations appear in Appendix 3.

Adulteration of feedstuffs is a common complaint from livestock producers in many developing countries. This problem has been encountered at various times throughout most regions of the world. In section 12, some suggestions are offered as a means to establish quality control regulations and to set standards for all manufactured feedstuffs offered for sale.