Date of Award:

12-2009

Document Type:

Thesis

Degree Name:

Master of Science (MS)

Department:

Plants, Soils, and Climate

Advisor/Chair:

Corey V. Ransom

Abstract

Research trials performed in the greenhouse compared the tolerance and response of Hordeum jubatum and desirable pasture grass species to herbicides, salinity, and flooding. Desirable grass species used in this study included: `Fawn' tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae), `Garrison' creeping foxtail (Alopecurus arundinaceus), `Palaton' reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea), `Climax' timothy (Phleum pratense), `Alkar' tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum), `Potomac' orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata), and `Mustang' altai wildrye (Leymus angustus). Tolerance to herbicides, salinity, and flooding varied significantly among grass species. Herbicide tolerance was tested using four herbicides at five rates each. The herbicides used were imazapic (Plateau), propoxycarbazone (Olympus), sulfosulfuron (Outrider), and flucarbazone (Everest) at rates of 0, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 g ha-1. Foxtail barley was least tolerant of sulfosulfuron and propoxycarbazone. Tall fescue, creeping foxtail, and reed canarygrass were susceptible to all the herbicides tested. Timothy and foxtail barley were moderately tolerant while tall wheatgrass exhibited the greatest tolerance to flucarbazone. Orchardgrass was most tolerant to propoxycarbazone. Salinity tolerance was determined by exposing grasses to increasing electrical conductivity (EC) over time. Reed canarygrass and timothy were most susceptible to salinity. Orchardgrass, creeping foxtail, and tall fescue were moderately tolerant of salinity. Foxtail barley, altai wildrye, and tall wheatgrass exhibited the highest tolerances to salinity, and continued to persist at the highest EC levels tested. Flooding tolerance was determined by flooding grasses in 18 cm of water for 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. Grasses that were able to extend above the water surface survived, whereas plants that failed to extend beyond the water surface experienced higher mortality rates.

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