Date of Award:
Master of Science (MS)
Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences
Carl A. Ernstrom
The development of cheese flavor in ultrafiltered whole milk retentates was investigated. Acidified (pH 5.7) pasteurized whole milk was concentrated to 21% fat, 17% protein and 41% total solids, and then divided into six lots. Each lot was subdivided into three groups of two samples each. Each group was inoculated with one of three lactic cultures -- Streptococcus lactis C6 , commercial mixed concentrated Marschall's MD294S or CCI299S. One sample in each group was treated with rennet and the other sample left rennet free. All samples were incubated at 30 C until the pH reached 5.2-5.1. Each of the fermented retentates was further divided into 12 samples. Six of them were incubated at 22 C and the other six at 30 C. After two weeks incubation, the samples were evaluated for flavor quality, body quality and flavor intensity. A similar analysis was conducted after two weeks for a total incubation period of four weeks.
The effects of culture, rennet and incubation temperature on product quality were determined. Rennet and temperature were the only factors with significant impact on flavor intensity or body and flavor quality. No significant effects were attributed to the lactic cultures, although bitterness was more frequently found in retentates fermented with culture C6.
Samples containing rennet and ripened at 30 C developed the highest levels of soluble nitrogen (23-25% of total nitrogen) but had the poorest flavor intensity, flavor quality and body quality. Samples without rennet and ripened at 22 Chad the lowest levels of soluble nitrogen (13-18% of total nitrogen), and the most satisfactory organoleptic scores.
Hwang, David Long-Ying, "Cheese Flavor Development in Unfiltered Whole Milk Concentrates" (1979). All Graduate Theses and Dissertations. 5222.