Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Master of Science (MS)


Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences

Department name when degree awarded

Nutrition and Food Sciences

Committee Chair(s)

Delay G. Hendricks


Delay G. Hendricks


Arthur W. Mahoney


Von T. Mendenhall


Haven B. Hendricks


Mechanically-deboned beef shank (MDS) and hand-deboned beef shank (HDS) were prepared into thuringer (acid fermented), canned meat (retorted) and bologna (dry-heated) . Raw meat and these products were then lyophilized and mixed into balanced diets and fed to weanling male rats for three weeks to evaluate the bioavailability of calcium, iron and fluoride. Bioavailability of calcium from MDS and its processed products was determined by feeding growing male rats with 5. 01 to 5. 53 g Ca/kg from MDS. HDS diets with 0. 18 to 7.13 g Ca/kg added from calcium carbonate w e re also fed to rats for a relative comparison. The bioavailability of calcium in MDS appeared to be in the same range as that of calcium carbonate as evidenced by apparent absorption, relative biological values, bone ash and calcium content, and breaking strength of femora. Processing by acid fermentation, dry-heat or wet-heat did not affect calcium bioavailability of MDS and HDS. Iron bioavailability from MDS and HDS was evaluated by apparent iron absorption value, terminal hemoglobin level, and liver iron storage. This study indicates that the iron from HDS was more efficiently utilized than the iron from MDS; however, MDS contains 30 percent more metabolizable iron than HDS. Fermentation processing improved, whereas retorting and high level of dietary calcium (7. 13 g Ca/kg) depressed the absorption and utilization of iron from MDS and HDS. Apparent fluoride absorption, retention and bone (vertebra and femur) fluoride content were assayed to evaluate fluoride bioavailability. Processing by acid fermentation, dry-heat or wet-heat tended to decrease fluoride apparent absorption and retention. Bone fluoride contents were more related to dietary fluoride levels rather than to processing procedures. This study indicates that bone fluoride content is probably a more reliable measure to evaluate fluoride bioavailability than the percent absorption and retention values.



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