Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences

Department name when degree awarded

Nutrition and Food Sciences

Committee Chair(s)

C. Anthon Ernstrom


C. Anthon Ernstrom


G. Richardson


R. Brown


D. Cornforth


J. C. Batty


R. Lamb


Process cheese models were prepared by blending acid or rennet casein, milk fat, sodium chloride, 2.5% emulsifying salt and water and heating to 80 C. Acid casein cheese models were subjected to sodium hydroxide conditioning at 65 C in the cooker. Model process cheeses were acidified with lactic acid and treated by addition of undenatured and heat-denatured whey protein, four different emulsifying salts and sodium oxalate.

Meltability and toughness of the model cheese increased to a maximum with increased sodium hydroxide conditioning of acid casein to pH 7.20. These same properties decreased with addition of undenatured and heat-denatured whey protein to both casein cheese models. Loss of emulsion occurred during the meltability test of rennet casein cheese models with 3.0 and 4.5% added whey protein.

Emulsifying salts affected the models differently. Disodium phosphate and tetrasodium pyrophosphate in rennet casein models eliminated the melting property. These same salts in acid casein models produced excellent meltability. Trisodium citrate produced cheeses with good meltability in both acid and rennet casein cheese models. Acid casein cheese models prepared with sodium aluminum phosphate had fair meltability and were very tender (no rupture upon compression). Chelation of calcium by sodium oxalate in rennet casein cheese emulsified with disodium phosphate or tetrasodium pyrophosphate improved meltability with a corresponding increase in toughness.

Scanning electron micrographs of model process cheeses indicated a direct relationship between extent of emulsification and poor meltability of rennet and pH conditioned acid casein model cheeses. Acid casein model cheeses prepared with different emulsifying salts did not exhibit this same relationship. Addition of whey protein concentrate to rennet casein model cheese produced fibrous structures around the fat globules. No structural abnormalities were noted in the acid casein cheeses prepared with whey protein concentrate.