Date of Award:

1991

Document Type:

Dissertation

Degree Name:

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Department:

Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences

Department name when degree awarded

Nutrition and Food Sciences

Advisor/Chair:

Rodney J. Brown

Abstract

Absorption bands responding to changes in fat, protein, and lactose concentrations in milk were determined. The effects of milk fat variation and lipolysis on the infrared spectrum were studied.

Absorbances from 1283 to 1100 cm-1 correlated with fat, protein, and lactose concentration and showed a low response to milk fat variation and lipolysis. A Fourier transform infrared spectrometer equipped with an attenuated total internal reflectance cell was calibrated using these absorption band s, partial least squares statistics, and milk samples from herds in Minnesota. When the fat, protein, and lactose concentrations in these samples were predicted, the standard deviations of difference (reference - infrared) were .22, .06, and .02% . When the fat, protein, and lactose concentrations in a separate set of samples from herds in California were predicted, the standard deviations of difference were 1.23, .10, and .07%. Substitution of a 15 μm pathlength transmission cell for the attenuated total internal reflectance cell changed the standard deviations of difference to .07, .11, and .06% in the calibration (Minnesota) samples and .09, .10, and .16% in the validation (California) samples.

Infrared spectroscopy was used to measure whey powder in an adulterated sample of nonfat dry milk. Mixtures of nonfat dry milk containing whey powder at various concentrations were analyzed using absorption bands between 1400 and 1200 cm-1 in the infrared spectrum. There was a strong correlation (r > .99) between predicted and measured concentrations of whey powder in adulterated samples. Accuracy was not affected by processing conditions , source of nonfat dry milk, and origin of whey powder.

A rapid method for detecting soybean oil in process cheese was developed. The infrared spectrum of each sample was collected using an accessory designed for analysis of solid samples. A linear relationship fit (= .98) when the ratio of absorbance at 2957 and 2852 cm-1 was plotted versus percent adulteration.

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