Date of Award:
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences
Department name when degree awarded
Nutrition and Food Sciences
Rodney J. Brown
Rodney J. Brown
Donald J. McMahon
Paul A. Savello
Donald V. Sisson
Thomas A. Grover
Douglas G. Dalgleish
Cation-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography separated whole casein into β-casein A2, A1, and B, K-casein, αs1-casein, and αs2-casein fractions as well as γ-caseins and several unidentified peaks using a urea-acetate buffer at pH 5 and a NaCl gradient. The whole casein fractions eluted in the following order: breakdown products of β-casein and unidentified peaks; β-casein A2, Al, and B; additional breakdown products of β-casein and unidentified peaks; K-casein; αs1-casein; and αs2-casein. The calculated composition of the four major caseins correlated well with values obtained using anion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography at pH 7. An acid-PAGE gel confirmed that the three β-casein peaks were variants of β-casein.
Incubating herd bulk whole casein with neuraminidase (EC 184.108.40.206) removed carbohydrate from K-casein. Anion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography separated whole casein into β-casein breakdown products, K-casein A and B, β-casein, αs2-casein, and αs1-casein peaks as well as three unidentified fractions using bis-Tris-propane-urea buffer at pH 7 and a NaCl gradient. Fractions of whole casein eluted in the following order: breakdown products of β-casein and unidentified fractions A and B; K-casein fraction; unidentified C fraction; β-casein; αs2-casein; and αs1-casein. Following treatment with neuraminidase, K-casein eluted as K-casein B and A rather than a series of peaks. Casein samples from individual cows containing known combinations of K-casein A and B confirmed that the peaks were K-casein variants.
Isoelectric focusing on a PhastSystem™ separated K-casein A and B; β-casein A1, A2, A3, and B; αs1-casein Band C; β-lactoglobulin A and B; αs2-casein A; and α-lactalbumin B. Minimal preparation and a short separation time enabled many whole milk and whole casein samples to be phenotyped daily.
Stepwise regression equations derived to predict samples as homozygous or heterozygous for K-casein A and B and β-casein A1, A2, and B had coefficient of determination values of .18, .58, .82, and .72 for K-casein A and B, β-casein A1, β-casein A2, and β-casein B. Although amino acid analysis can identify whether β-casein A1, A2, or B variants are present, it cannot identify whether K-casein A and B variants are present.
Percentages of K-casein, β-casein, αs1-casein, and αs2-casein obtained with isoelectric focusing, cation-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography, and anion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography compare well with published results. Isoelectric focusing and anion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography methods separated K-casein into its A and B variants. Isoelectric focusing and cation-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography separated β-casein into its A1, A2, and B variants. Individual cows homozygous for K-casein A or B expressed the same amount of K-casein. When results from individual cows heterozygous for K-casein are combined, the two alleles are expressed equally; on an individual cow basis, however, some cows expressed more K-casein B than K-casein A. Individual cows homozygous for β-casein A1, A2 or B expressed the same amount of β-casein. When the results for individual cows heterozygous for β-casein are combined, the two β-casein alleles are expressed equally. In milk from individual cows typed β-casein A2B, slightly more B than A2 was expressed with cation-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography.
Hollar, Carol M., "Estimation of Selected Milk Protein Genetic Variants by Multi-Component Analysis of Amino Acid Profiles" (1992). All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Spring 1920 to Summer 2023. 5390.
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