Date of Award:

1992

Document Type:

Thesis

Degree Name:

Master of Science (MS)

Department:

Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences

Department name when degree awarded

Nutrition and Food Sciences

Advisor/Chair:

Donald J. McMahon

Abstract

A processing procedure for the manufacture of directly acidified cottage cheese curd from 16% total solids ultrafiltered retentate was developed. The effects of preacidification of skim milk before ultrafiltration and heat treatment of retentate were investigated to improve the functional and sensory qualities of retentate curd.

Retentate directly acidified with phosphoric acid and glucono-delta-lactone to pH 4.7 formed a dense, rubbery curd that could not be handled well in a vat. A heat treatment of 71.1°C for 30 min applied to the retentate resulted in a curd with acceptable handling properties. However, this heat treatment caused the curd to shift in pH, become translucent in appearance, and have a pasty texture. Preacidification of the skim milk to pH 5.8 12 h prior to ultrafiltration, and a less severe heat treatment of 71.1°C for 6 min made a stable curd with good sensory quality.

A 3 x 4 x 3 randomized split block design experiment was done to test the effects of preacidification and heat treatment on the properties of retentate curd. Skim milk was pasteurized at 62.8°C for 30 min and split into three lots which were unacidified, phosphoric acid added to pH 6.2, and phosphoric acid added to pH 5.85. The three lots of skim milk were ultrafiltered at 54.4°C to 16% total solids. Each lot was divided into four treatments which were unheated, heated to 71.1°C for 7 s, 76.7°C for 7 s, and 82.2°C for 7 s. Each vat was replicated three times. Cottage cheese pH, total solids, and six sensory attributes were measured. Finished cottage cheeses were evaluated by an expert panel of five judges. Total solids, protein content, and fines content of the whey were also measured. Preacidification treatment at pH 6.2 enhanced curd structure, which increased solids recovery, reduced fines, and improved curd appearance, firmness, and texture. Heat treatments caused softening of the curd and increased moisture content in the curd. Excessive heat treatment caused shattering, fines, and mealiness. The best curd from the experiment was produced from pH 6.2 retentate heat treated at 71.1°C for 7 s. Whey proteins decreased in wheys from retentates heat treated at 76.7°C for 7 sand 82.2°C for 7 s. The effects of heat treatment were more pronounced with increasing acidification.

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