Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Master of Science (MS)


Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences

Department name when degree awarded

Nutrition and Food Sciences

Committee Chair(s)

Donald J. McMahon


Donald J. McMahon


C. L. Hansen


P. A. Savello


The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of ultra-high temperature process parameters on age gelation of milk concentrate. Skim milk was concentrated to 2X (volume reduction) using reverse osmosis. The milk concentrate was preheated at 75 or 90°C for 20 or 50 s and UHT-processed at 138 or 145°C for 4 or 16 s. Sterilizing methods used were direct steam injection and indirect plate heat exchanger. The samples were aseptically collected in presterilized plastic containers and stored at 15 or 35°C. At 15°C storage temperature, the steam-injected samples gelled in 5 months when 4 s UHT time was used. When UHT time was increased to 16 s, the samples gelled in 6 months.

Of the samples that were UHT processed by indirect plate heat exchanger for 4 s and stored at 15°C, all gelled after 7 months. When UHT time was increased to 16 s, all the 138°C samples gelled after 7 months as did the samples that were preheated for 50 s and UHT-processed at 138°C. The samples preheated at 75°C for 50 sand UHT-processed at 145°C gelled after 8 months, whereas at 90°C preheat temperature the samples gelled after 9 months.

The samples stored at 35°C did not gel but showed different sedimentation levels. The sediment depth in the container was always greater for the steam-injected samples. The samples that received higher heat treatments by the two processing methods had a higher sedimentation depth.

The pH decreased during storage and the extent of reduction was higher at 35°C storage temperature . Maillard browning occurred at both storage temperatures. Browning was greater in samples stored at 35°C and processed by indirect plate heat exchanger.