Date of Award:
Master of Science (MS)
Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences
Department name when degree awarded
Nutrition and Food Sciences
Joseph MK Irudayaraj
A suitable microtome sampling technique was used to sample cheese for analysis using FTIR spectroscopy. Well-separated fat- and protein-related bands were obtained in the spectra of Cheddar and Mozzarella cheese samples using this method. The absorbance intensity of the spectra was proportional to the thickness of the sample. The intensity of absorbance and fat- and protein-related bands increased with an increase in the fat and protein content in the sample. Strong and well-separated bands at 1744, 1450, 1240, 1170, and 1115 cm-1 arising mainly from fat content were observed using this method. Bands observed at 1650 and 1540 cm-1 were attributed to the protein present in the cheese. Bands at 1615-1639, 1640-1648, 1650-1658, and 1660-1688 cm-1 corresponding to β-sheet, random coil, helix, and the turns/sheet portion of the secondary structure were observed int he range of the amide I band.
Characteristics of spectra for full-fat (FFCC) and reduced-fat Cheddar cheese (RFCC) during ripening were investigated. The absorbance of bands at 1116-1240 from C-C, C-O, C-N stretch, 1461 cm-1 from C-N bend (scissoring), 1744 cm-1 from ester carbonyl groups (fat A), 2850-2930 cm-1 from C-H stretch (fat B), 1650 and 1540 cm-1 from protein amide I and II varied druing cheese aging. Bands at 1116 and1240 cm-1 arising from C-O, C-N, and C-C stretch changed slightly during cheese aging. A correlation coefficient of 0.97 for bands between 1744 and 1167 cm-1 arising from fat, and that of 0.93 at 1650 and 1540 cm-1 arising from protein, respectively, showed that one of these fat or protein groups was highly related to the other. A correlation coefficient of greater than 0.80 among the bands of fat and protein groups indicated a strong interaction in those bands. Correlation of ripening time and absorbance at bands corresponding to each function group was analyzed. A ripening index model was obtained by correlating ripening time with predominant reactive group absorbance peaks. An R2 of 0.83 and 0.59 was obtained for full-fat and reduced fat Cheddar cheese, respectively.
Texture development and its correlation with FTIR spectra data for FFCC and RFCC during aging were also studied. RFCC had a higher value of hardness, gumminess, and chewiness than its full-fat counterpart. The values decreased during the early stages of ripening and then increased with time. The change in hardness, adhesiveness, and springiness was expressed as a function of the change in absorbance of the FTIR spectra using multiple regression analysis. An R2 value of 0.67, 0.54, and 0.75 was obtained for full-fat Cheddar cheese, and a value of 0.51, 0.59, and 0.54 was obtained for reduced-fat Cheddar cheese for the respective texture parameters.
Chen, Manxiang, "Study of Ripening Characteristics of Full-Fat and Low-Fat Cheddar Cheese Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Texture Analyzer" (1998). All Graduate Theses and Dissertations. 5448.