Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences

Department name when degree awarded

Nutrition and Food Sciences


Deloy G. Hendricks


The antioxidant activity of carnosine and phytic acid was investigated using several model systems. Carnosine and phytic acid alone inhibited metal ion-catalyzed deoxyribose degradation. Carnosine strongly inhibited metal ion-catalyzed lipid peroxidation in liposomes and in ground beef homogenates. Phytic acid facilitated oxidation of Fe (II) to Fe (III), and it inhibited hemeprotein + H202-catalyzed lipid peroxidation in linoleic acid micelles.

Antioxidant and color stabilizing effects of carnosine and phytate were investigated in a beef model system. Both compounds increased the rate of pH decline in pre-rigor beef muscle and stabilized fresh meat color by inhibiting metmyoglobin formation and lipid peroxidation in raw samples during storage at 4°C. Both compounds inhibited heme degradation and lipid peroxidation in cooked beef during storage at 4°C. Iron released from heme was strongly related to lipid peroxidation in cooked beef.

Ascorbic acid inhibited metmyoglobin formation on the surface of ground beef patties but not in the bulk of the product. In contrast, camosine inhibited metmyoglobin formation and brown color development throughout the product. Carnosine increased cook yield and salt-soluble protein, but ascorbic acid had no effect on cook yield and decreased salt-soluble protein. Carnosine was more effective on inhibition of lipid peroxidation than was ascorbic acid.

Phytate greatly enhanced water-holding capacity of raw and cooked meat in a dilute beef model system. Effects of 0.5% sodium phytate, sodium pyrophosphate, and sodium tripolyphosphate, along with 1% NaCl, on physicochemical properties of restructured raw and cooked beef were compared. In raw beef, the treatments with sodium phytate, sodium pyrophosphate, and sodium tripolyphosphate increased meat pH and salt-soluble protein level, and inhibited metmyoglobin formation and lipid peroxidation, compared to the control. In cooked beef, the treatments with sodium phytate, sodium pyrophosphate, and sodium tripolyphosphate increased bind strength, cooked yield, moisture level, and meat pH, and inhibited lipid peroxidation. The treatments with sodium pyrophosphate and sodium tripolyphosphate increased inorganic orthophosphate level in both raw and cooked beef, compared to sodium phytate and the control.

These results indicate that carnosine and phytate can be used as meat preservatives for extending shelf-life and enhancing water-holding capacity of meat and meat products.



Included in

Nutrition Commons