Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Master of Science (MS)


Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences

Department name when degree awarded

Nutrition and Food Sciences

Committee Chair(s)

Daren P. Cornforth


Daren P. Cornforth


Charles Carpenter


Deloy Hendricks


This study determined antioxidant and sensory effects of cinnamon, cloves, fennel, pepper, and star anise (Chinese 5-spice ingredients) in cooked ground beef. In experiment 1, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of cooked samples were measured during refrigerated storage. In experiment 2, trained panelists evaluated cooked samples for rancid, beef, and spice flavor intensity. Total aerobic plate counts were also measured.

Mean TBA values were high (3.4) for control samples. In previous studies, TBA values >1.0 were associated with unacceptably rancid cooked meats. At the lowest spice level of 0.1% of meat weight, all spices except pepper had lower TBA values than controls. Thus, the minimum effective level was 0.1% for all spices except pepper. For all spices except cloves, increasing the use level to 0.5% significantly decreased TBA values (dose-response effect). Cloves did not exhibit a dose-response effect, since all clove levels were very effective, and not different, for maintenance of TBA values <1.0 during refrigerated storage. For all spices, increasing use level from 0.5 to 1.0% did not significantly reduce TBA values during storage (no dose-response effect). For cinnamon, fennel, pepper, and star anise, TBA values were significantly lower with a use level of 0.5%, compared to 0.1%. Thus, the recommended use level for these spices is 0.5% and the recommended level for cloves is 0.1%.

In experiment 2 (sensory evaluation), there was a high positive correlation (p < 0.01) between TBA values and panel scores for rancid odor and flavor (0.83 and 0.78, respectively). Hence, TBA values were in good agreement with sensory panel scores as a measure of oxidation during storage. Spice flavor was inversely correlated (p < 0.01) with rancid odor and flavor (-0.57 and –0.61, respectively), suggesting that spices also decreased the perception of rancid flavor in these samples. The 5-spice blends did not inhibit microbial growth of cooked samples during storage, compared to controls, perhaps due to heat inactivation or loss of antimicrobial components from the spices during cooking. In conclusion, all spices and blends had a dual effect, reducing chemical oxidation as measured by TBA values, and also imparting a distinctive flavor to cooked ground beef.