Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)




Frank R. Ascione


In previous research men have been shown to obtain higher mean scores on tests of horizontality CH) and verticality CV) than do women. This study investigated the role of experiential factors in this gender difference. Undergraduate psychology students were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: training, enhanced training, and placebo. The pretest measure of verticality and horizontality CV/ H), training, and posttest were administered via videotape. Major findings were: men obtained higher mean V/H scores than women; V and H scores correlated significantly; and training increased performance relative to a placebo, but enhanced training was not superior to standard training.

It was hypothesized that participation in athletics might eliminate the V/ H sex difference. This was supported by initial analyses of the data. However, further analyses revealed that this may have been artifactual.

Errors on the V/H test were classified as undercorrections, overcorrections, and miscorrections. It was found that miscorrections corresponded to relatively low scores, inconsistent responding, and resistance to training. Scores on a generalization test substantiated al l findings from the original V/H measure.



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