Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Master of Science (MS)


Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences

Department name when degree awarded

Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science

Committee Chair(s)

Jerrad F. Legako


Jerrad F. Legako


Charles Carpenter


Silvana Martini


The objective of this study was to determine how quality grade (Prime, Low Choice, and Standard) and degree of doneness (4, 25, 55, 60, 71, and 77°C) influence the development of the flavor-producing compounds in beef whole muscle and ground patties. The content and type of many compounds influence beef flavor, including: proximate composition, pH, neutral and polar lipid fatty acids, free and total amino acids, reducing sugars, and volatile compounds, in addition to cooking duration. The important proximate components include fat, moisture, and protein content. Amino acids and reducing sugars alone contribute to the five basic tastes, but they can also react to create volatile compounds that contribute to a diverse flavor profile. Degradation of fatty acids also creates a diverse flavor profile that contributes to beef eating quality. Thus, varied interactions between quality grade, degree of doneness, and product type were determined for each of these measured compounds. In general, there were less of these compounds in ground patties compared with steaks. Total fat percentage and volatile compounds resulting from lipid degradation, however, were greater in ground patties compared with steaks. Furthermore, grinding reduced the amount of water soluble compounds (amino acids and reducing sugars). This implies that grinding significantly impacts beef flavor precursor compounds and may alter the perception of beef flavor. Generally, volatile compounds increased with cooking and showed little to no response upon further cooking. Fatty acids also increased with cooking in most cases. The water soluble compounds decreased with cooking. The effect of quality grade on these measurements varied by degree of doneness, product type, and individual compound.



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