Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Master of Science (MS)


Mathematics and Statistics

Department name when degree awarded



L. D. Loveland


The central theme for this paper is provided by the following three statements:

(1) Every compact connected 1-manifold is S1.

(2) Every compact connected simply connected 2-manifold is S2.

(3) Every compact connected simply connected 3-manifold is S3.

We provide proofs of statements (1) and (2). The veracity of the third statement, the Poincaré Conjecture, has not been determined. It is known that should a counter-example exist it can be found by removing from S3 a finite collect ion of solid tori and sewing them back differently. We show that it is not possible to find a counterexample by removing from S3 a single solid torus of twist knot type or torus knot type and sewing it back differently. We treat as special cases a solid torus of trivial knot type and trefoil knot type.

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