Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Master of Science (MS)


Civil and Environmental Engineering


David K. Stevens


In this research, a household water treatment system was built and evaluated as a trial for improving the drinking water quality of the Nile River for the low-income communities. The system consisted of household-scale slow sand filters, and transparent polyethylene terephthalate-bottles for solar disinfection. The evaluation of the system depended on the removal/inactivation of some surrogates for the reference pathogens, and turbidity. The reference pathogens are pathogens specified by the World Health Organization to evaluate the efficiency of the household water treatment options. They were chosen to represent the classes of pathogens in water (bacteria, viruses, protozoa). The surrogates used in the evaluation of the system are Escherichia coli (E.coli), Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli bacteriophage (MS2). The candidate surrogates are also specified by the World Health Organization.

The designed household-scale slow sand filter was very efficient in removing the different turbidity levels to ≤0.4NTU. The evaluated system is classified as highly protective because it was able to achieve higher than 4 log removal for E.coli and Clostridium perfringens, and higher than 5 log removal for MS2.