Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Doctor of Education (EdD)


School of Teacher Education and Leadership

Department name when degree awarded

Educational Administration

Committee Chair(s)

Basil C. Hansen


Basil C. Hansen


Charles O. Ryan


Robert A. Wininger


Wendell B. Anderson


Eldon M. Drake



The purpose of this study was to conduct historical research of the educational systems of the People's Republic of China during the period of 1949-1963. It is hoped that this study will help to clarify the Chinese Communist regime's approach to education and some of the problems encountered in its attempt to mold an educational system suitable for its economic and political need and purpose. More specifically, this study met the following objectives:

  1. To know the picture of the school ladder.
  2. To understand the deviation between actual practice and propaganda of Communist China's education.
  3. To comprehend relationships between Party and educational administration.


The basic methodology in this study was historical. The development of educational system was traced from 1949 to 1963.

To accomplish the purpose of this study, the procedures consisted of a review of literature, including government documents, originally periodicals and newspapers and radio broadcasts, a collection of information which provided knowledge of Communist China's education.

Findings and Conclusions

  1. The Communist China school system was characterized by an emphasis on vocational education, displayed in three ways: First, they set up various technical schools according to different occupations. Secondly, they enhanced the spare-time education for cadres still at work. Thirdly, schools at all levels stressed vocational training.
  2. The Communist China school system was a multi-track one. All students of these schools were interchangeable. it was very flexible.
  3. The other characteristic of the Communist China School System was abolishment of compulsory education.
  4. It is no doubt, the half-work half-study schools in Communist China, that the youth in these schools were able to finish their university education while taking part in labor activities. Eventually, those schools intended to solve financial problems in education and use the youth by enrolling those age 17 to 22 to undertake manual labor for communes.
  5. Communist China educational authorities opposed the principle of estimating the individual ability of the students before teaching them.
  6. The Red and Expert Schools were responsible for offering both regular and vocational education. On the other hand, in these schools there was emphasis on the theory of being "red" first and then expert and both "red" and expert.
  7. The Chinese Communists had no intention to abide the school system they established. It could be held that the Communist China system was in a transitional period and a new one was expected to take its place.
  8. The function of political education in the eyes of the Communists could be likened to the function of liberal education in the eyes of educators in the West. However, in Communist China, the political ends and educational ends were to be identical.
  9. Educational opportunities must be first given to the working class and the children of the working class in preference to the bourgeoisie and the children of the bourgeoisie.
  10. In Communist China, the Party's control over educational affairs was through its personnel in charge of propaganda. The head of the propaganda organ of the highest authority for the school district.