Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


School of Teacher Education and Leadership

Committee Chair(s)

Katherine Vela


Katherine Vela


Patricia S. Moyer-Packenham


Jessica F. Shumway


Tyson S. Barrett


Kady Schneiter


This study aimed to investigate the impact of student attitudes toward statistics and student achievement after engaging in large-enrollment introductory statistics course curriculum using continuous formative assessments with feedback and reassessment opportunities. This framework, called Formative Assessment Cycles (FACs) was implanted, providing students formative assessments both in and out of the classroom, with feedback and reassessment. A quasi-experimental, quantitative research design allowed for the investigation of course achievement from pre-FACs to FACs semesters using regression discontinuity methodology. Changes in attitudes from pre- to post-survey in semesters using a curriculum with FACs were analyzed by multilevel regression techniques. Course achievement improved in the co-requisite introductory statistics course using FACs for those who have less mathematical knowledge, suggesting the need for co-requisite courses and formative feedback and reassessment to provide students successful pathways to achieve their quantitative literacy requirement. Additionally, students with higher course achievement had significantly better attitudes towards statistics than their peers with lower final course grades. These students experienced more appreciation for the course and the science of statistics in their field of study, improved feelings of competence to do statistical calculations, and believed the course was less confusing and easier than they first believed at pre-survey. These attitudes exhibited in this study were higher than previous studies on students’ attitudes toward statistics, suggesting that students who have opportunities to learn from their mistakes enjoy their introductory statistics class better and feel empowered by their newfound understanding.