Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Applied Sciences, Technology, and Education

Committee Chair(s)

Brian K. Warninck


Brian K. Warninck


M. Rose Judd-Murray


Michael L. Pate


Kerry A. Rood


Debra M. Spielmaker


This study examined the effects of different feedback modalities provided during simulated-based practice on performance and perceptions. In addition, the research also addressed the relationship between participants' feedback literacy, perceptions, and improvement scores. The purpose of this research was motivated by the emerging equine simulation technology that provides feedback on movement and coordination during complex motor skill acquisition. Selecting an effective feedback approach for simulation-based practice in motor skill learning is contingent on the complexity of the performance skill and the learner's experience. However, the learner's feedback literacy can result in contradictory performance and perceptions despite the feedback approach experienced. Feedback literacy is a concept that identifies a learner's ability to uptake feedback.

This mixed-methods study used the conceptual framework of Carless's 3P Model of the Learner Experience of Feedback. Seventy-five participants completed the study, consisting of three 10-minute practice sessions with a pre/posttest and an exit survey at the end of their third session.

The study demonstrated that the combination of instructor- and simulator-mediated feedback had the most significant impact on improvement scores by the completion of three practice sessions. Regardless of feedback modality, the novice participants had the most significant improvement score impact by the completion of three practice sessions. When an instructor provided feedback, participants had more positive perceptions of the practice experience. The study supported that the higher the participant's feedback literacy, the more they engaged in practice, appreciated feedback, and improved on performance scores, regardless of feedback received. The lower a participant's feedback literacy, the more negative they were about the experience and their perceived improvement, and the higher likelihood of disengaging during practice, regardless of feedback received.

The results indicate that a multi-modality approach to feedback in simulation-based motor skill practice is effective. The findings also support that feedback literacy influences a learner's engagement during practice, and instructor feedback can mitigate the negative influences of low feedback literacy. Conclusions from this research suggest that using a horseback riding simulator has the potential to improve riding seat skills and supports an equine welfare-minded approach to learning in equestrian sports.



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