Microstructural differences between unbruised and bruised apple tissues were evaluated. Cell connections appeared to be looser in bruised tissue than in unbruised tissue. Bruised tissue exhibited more empty regions which are not occupied by cells than unbruised tissue. Empty reg ions in unbruised and bruised tissues were about 0.7 and 2.4 per mm2, respectively, comprising 0.7% and 2.7% of the respective total volume. Stereology is a body of mathematical methods relating three-dimensional parameters defining a structure to two- dimensional measurements. Two methods based on a stereological principle were also used to quantify the fraction of total volume occupied by cells. In unbruised tissue, about 99.5% of the volume was occupied by cells compared to only 97.4% in bruised tissue. Both methods successfully quantifled microstructural differences between unbruised and bruised apple tissues.
Kim, N. K. and Hung, Y. C.
"Microscopic Measurement of Apple Bruise,"
Food Structure: Vol. 9
, Article 4.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/foodmicrostructure/vol9/iss2/4