Document Type


Publication Date

Summer 2002


This paper reviews the literature on public involvement in the context of public land management agencies with particular attention to public involvement activities in the National Park Service. A conceptual framework borrowed from small-group decision-making literature is presented to assist public land managers in determining the role and place of public involvement in the management process. A variety of public involvement techniques and data analysis methods is reviewed. A review of the literature suggests several recommendations for managers, including: clarify the goals of public involvement; focus on the public involvement process as well as the outcome; and use a variety of techniques to reach a diversity of stakeholders.


Text found in Social Science Research Review. Vol. 3, No. 1. Summer 2002