This study examined how Utah children used emergency medical services (EMS) and related hospital care in 1991-1992. The EMS and hospital records were linked using special software (probabilistic linkage) . The principal findings of the study concerned the care of young children less than 5 years of age. They received fewer procedures prior to being transported to a hospital and required more time at the scene for assessment. Some interventions such as splinting of fractured arms prior to transport to a hospital were related to reduced hospital charges. Ambulance and hospital charges for children were estimated to by $35,000,000 not counting physician charges, prescriptions, and rehabilitation care. A training program in intravenous (IV) line placement for ambulance personnel resulted in a reduction in the amount of time EMS personnel spent at the scene. This study raised several hypotheses which could be the subject of future research.