When National Forest Timber is sold, land managers are required to protect other forest resources such as wildlife, soil and water, and scenic qualities. Measures taken to protect nontimber resources can raise administrative costs, lower the quantity of timber sold, and can reduce stumpage receipts. The costs of sale administration and the reduction in timber harvested can be readily derived from accounting and planning records. But little information is available on how much nontimber resources cost in terms of stumpage receipts. To provide such information, some 187 timber sales were studied on seven National Forests in the Northern Region between 1975 and 1981. The study focused on the questions: How do nontimber requirements and objectives affect, first, the appraisal costs allowed in deriving the stumpage value? And second, how do they affect the margin the purchaser bids over and above the estimated stumpage value?
United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, "Costs of Managing Nontimber Resources When Harvesting Timber in the Northern Rockies" (1985). Forestry. Paper 40.