Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Economics and Finance

First Advisor



The seed of cooperatives was first brought to Thailand by Sir Bernard Hunter, the British banker, in 1914. Because of his suggestion , the first cooperative society was established in Phitsanulok Province in the northern part of Thailand, on February 26, 1916, along the lines of the Raiffeisen model, or what is known as the "village credit cooperative." The government at that time was still an absolute monarchy under the reign of King Rama VI. It desired, however, to relieve farmers from severe indebtedness and to enable them to expand their rice production, which was at that time becoming more and more important in earning foreign exchange. During the initial stages of cooperative development, the government directly provided cooperatives with funds to be loaned to members.

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